Revelation 11 is somewhat infamous for its mention of two witnesses who will issue plagues and destroy people with fire from their mouths. In addition, in vv.1-2 we get the mention of a temple and the trampling of its outer court and the “holy city.” What is this all referring to? Is it referring to a future, rebuilt temple in Jerusalem, and two literal witnesses in the “end times”? Or is this, as I will argue, symbolism of the church?
“Where the preaching of repentance, with judgments alone as evidence, had failed (Rev 11:6; cf. Rev 8:2-9:21), when fulfilled in witness to the point of death (11:7-10), participating in Jesus’ witness and victory through and over death (11:12), the prophetic ministry of the church will effect the conversion of the nations to God (11:13). This is the heart of the revelation contained in the scroll (10:1-11), the heart of Revelation’s message: that the church redeemed from all nations is called to suffering witness which, by virtue of its participation in Jesus’ sacrificial witness, can bring the nations to repentance of idolatry and conversion to the true God. In this way–as Jesus’ witness is extended universally in the life and death, as well as the preaching of the church–God’s kingdom can come to the nations as salvation, rather than judgement.” — Richard Bauckham
In this episode, Kirk covers some overview material on the trumpet judgments and apocalyptic literature, and then dives into the theme of prayer in the book of Revelation as highlighted in Revelation 8:2-5.
In this short book, originally delivered as an oral address in 1911, Princeton theologian and professor Benjamin B. Warfield addresses his seminarians in anticipation of their upcoming theological studies He stresses to them the importance of not divorcing theological study from functional, religious (or what we might call “spiritual”) experience.
The following is an audiobook that I recorded myself. The written piece can also be accessed here.
In this episode, Kirk and Dan quickly survey and review the seal judgments of chapters 6-7. Then they spend the bulk of the episode answering the question, “Who are the 144,000 from chapter 7:1-8?” arguing that they are symbolic of the church in 7:9ff.